Béres, Mátyás: Male-female opposition in Mansi
The possibility of differentiation between the male and female quality of a denoted object can be found in every language on a certain level. Some languages have grammatical tools as well to denote the biological sex (sexus), meaning that biological sex can be expressed with a separate grammatical category, namely with grammatical gender (genus), whereas in other languages the distinction by sex is restricted to the level of personal pronouns. Most Indo-European languages belong to the first group, excluding English for instance, which can be an obvious example for languages of the second group. However, the role of genus goes beyond semantical functions, because it primarily serves morphosyntactical purposes. The main aim of this paper is to investigate how Mansi, a language without a grammatical gender system, distinguishes between male and female objects. I would like to point out those characteristics that are typical of Mansi, especially its Sosva variant. Even though the concept of genus is unknown to all members of the Uralic language family, different strategies can be found in the individual languages to denote sexus. The examined lexical fields are kinship terms, job titles, and animal names. The sources of data are the Wogulisches Wörterbuch (Mansi Dictionary), the corpora of the Ob-Ugric Database, which contains folklore texts and various newspaper articles from Lūjimā Sēripos.
Bradley, Jeremy: Non cogito, ergo non sum: Existenz jenseits 3.prs.ind im Uralischen
Dieser Beitrag betrachtet die Realisierung von Existentialsätzen jenseits der dritten Person Präsens Indikativ in uralischen Sprachen. Hierbei wird versucht, in Referenzmaterialien vorgefundene paradigmatische Lücken zu füllen, beobachtete Varianz in der Realisierung dieser Strukturen zu erörtern sowie einen vorsichtigen Blick auf areale Muster in der Realisierung dieser Strukturen zu wagen.
Holopainen, Sampsa: Development of Proto-Uralic word-initial *ä in Hungarian: reassessing the etymological evidence
In this paper, it is argued that Proto-Uralic *ä in word-initial position regularly develops to é in Hungarian. This phonological rule is backed up by etymological material and the alleged counter-examples are analyzed critically. The paper attempts to bring more regularity into the research on Hungarian historical phonology.
Muravyev, Nikita & Zhornik, Daria: Passive in Ob-Ugric: information structure and beyond
In this paper, we consider the question of whether passivization in Ob-Ugric languages can be explained by the need to promote a P-participant, as stated in literature on Ob-Ugric, or to demote an A-participant, as is said to be the main function of passives in different languages according to many renowned theoretical and typological works. To clarify this issue, we consider separately groups of examples which can be explained both by A-demotion and P-promotion or which fit only one of these explanations. In the final chapter of the article, we provide some discussion about controversial examples we encounter and which motivations for passivization in Ob-Ugric we consider plausible.
Vojter, Kitti: The functions of inferential evidential in first and second person in Nganasan
The paper focuses on the differences between the first-, second- and third-person-use of particular evidential categories from a functional point of view. The purpose of the study is to support Curnow’s theory (2002) about the possible presence of the first-person effect in the use of inferential markers by analyzing the Nganasan -HA2TU- suffix. In addition to looking for specific functions associated with the first person, the study also aims to offer a thorough description of functions in the second-person occurrences. After a short overview of evidentiality and the evidential system of Nganasan, the research method and the results will be presented. The study material consists of 818 occurrences of the inferential suffix in the Nganasan Spoken Language Corpus (Brykina et al. 2018). By analyzing the 49 first- and 71 second-person markers, some presumed and some unexpected functions proved to be present, including meanings that are typical to a specific person category. Moreover, the marking the source of inference and assumption seems to be a function primarily associated with the use of the inferential in the third person.
Wagner-Nagy, Beáta: Events of giving and getting in Samoyedic languages
This study deals with the expression of the events of giving and getting. Some languages do not have dedicated lexemes meaning ‘give’ and ‘get’. On the contrary, some languages such as Japanese have more than one lexeme for these meanings. Northern Samoyedic languages belong to languages that have two lexemes with the meaning ‘give’. In turn, Southern Samoyedic languages have only one such verb. The situation is different with getting. There is no dedicated verb with this meaning in Samoyedic languages, and there is also no unified strategy to express these events. Four different strategies are used, one of which, passivization, is found in all Northern Samoyedic languages. The other three strategies are language-specific.
Viviana Ballaera: Klasse(n) Geschmack! Kulinarischer Geschmack als Ausdruck sozialer Differenzierung in Helsinki
Im Bereich des Alltäglichen finden sich viele Untersuchungsgegenstände, anhand derer man soziale Ungleichheit und Differenzierung analysieren kann. Durch das Alltägliche werden Ungleichheiten wahrgenommen und finden darin ihren Ausdruck (Barlösius 2011). Ziel des Artikels ist es anhand von geschmacklichen Präferenzen eine gesellschaftliche Stratifizierung innerhalb Helsinkis aufzuzeigen. Der Geschmack selbst wird dabei, als Teil des Habitus, in der Aneignung und Auslebung als sozial konstruiert definiert. Durch die Analyse von Angeboten auf den Speisekarten der Restaurants in Helsinki wurden Geschmacksmuster sichtbar gemacht, die bestimmte soziale Gruppen spezifizieren und die Frage beleuchtet, ob sich diese sozialen Gruppen in bestimmten Stadtteilen innerhalb Helsinkis unterschiedlich widerspiegeln und verteilen. Die Angebote stellten dabei einen möglichen Ausdruck sozialer Distinktion dar.
Bourdieus Theorie liefert eine wichtige Grundlage zum Bearbeiten des Themas von sozialer Ungleichheit. Mit Hilfe seiner Konzepte von Habitus, Geschmack und Lebensstil wurde versucht, ein grundlegendes Verständnis der hierarchischen Strukturen und Machtverhältnisse innerhalb der Gesellschaft von Helsinki zu erklären. Seine Theorie erwies sich als hilfreich, um soziale Klassen zu definieren und mit Hilfe der Studienergebnisse von Purhonen und Gronow (Polarizing Appetites? Stability and Change in Culinary Tastes in Finland, 1995–2007) eine Basis für die Analyse der Speisekarten zu schaffen. Es war möglich, durch diese Methode in Kombination mit den statistischen Daten der Stadtkanzlei Helsinki aufzuzeigen, dass es eine Stratifizierung innerhalb der Gesellschaft von Helsinki gibt und dass diese sich auch in Alltagspraktiken, wie der Wahl von Gerichten in einem Restaurant, widerspiegeln.
Anja Behnke: ‚Clause chaining‘ im Ob-Jenissej Gebiet
Die vorliegende Studie untersucht ‚clause chain‘ Konstruktionen in drei Sprachfamilien des Ob-Jenissej-Gebietes: Tungusisch, Uralisch und Turksprachen. Anhand der Einzelsprachen Ewenkisch, Selkupisch, Kamassisch und Chulymtürkisch sollen individuelle ‹clause chaining› Strategien aufgezeigt werden. Betrachtet werden Parameter wie der strukturelle Aufbau der ‚clause chain‘, aber auch Gemeinsamkeiten und Unterschiede hinsichtlich der Markierungsmöglichkeiten an Konverben, der Subjekt-Referenzmarkierung sowie Möglichkeiten unterschiedlicher Lesarten der ‚clause chain‘ Konstruktionen.
Maria Brykina & Josefina Budzisch: If only Selkup had an optative… (A corpus study of the lV-form in Selkup dialects)
The present article investigates the function of the -lV suffix in Selkup dialects. Since the 1980s, the suffix has been often denoted by the term optative, but both past descriptions and the corpus data examined here suggest that the suffix rather fulfills two functions: it is used to express the future and to mark imperative-hortative, the distribution of these meanings varying across dialects. We also claim that the presence of the clitic -sV in the paradigm of the lV-form is crucial for distinguishing these two functions in Central and Southern Selkup dialects.
Svetlana Edygarova: The Udmurt language between 1920 and 1950
In the article, I study the changes which took place in the Udmurt language in the period 1920–1950. In this short period, the Udmurt literary language was created basically from scratch and became the foundation for the modern Udmurt language. These years also proved one of the most tragic periods in the development of the Udmurt language, as the active efforts to build an Udmurt literary language in the 1920s ended with the beginning of the totalitarian regime and russification, forces which saw their peak between 1935–1950. The main objective of the article is to analyze what kind of linguistic changes happened in the Udmurt language under the totalitarian regime. I examine my material through the framework of totalitarian language and I describe which features of totalitarian language appear in the vocabulary, syntax, and morphology of the Udmurt language.
Ekaterina Georgieva: Syntactic correlates of (non-)finiteness in Udmurt
In this paper, I discuss non-finite clauses in Udmurt. Based on novel empirical evidence, I show that non-finite clauses in Udmurt differ from finite ones with respect to several morphosyntactic and syntactic properties, such as TAM and agreement marking, the case-marking of arguments, negation, word order, wh-question formation and the use of high adverbials. Finiteness is thereby viewed as a property of the clause rather than a property of the verb as in traditional descriptions of Udmurt. Furthermore, I discuss an analysis according to which the differences between finite and non-finite clauses can be derived if non-finite clauses are assumed to have a reduced syntactic structure.
Beáta Wagner-Nagy & Susann Fischer: Word order in Selkup
In this chapter we will have a look at word-order in verbal and non-verbal predicates in Selkup, also discussing the order of objects and non-finite verbs and the word-order in locative, existential and possessive sentences, and in questions. In a next step the structure of the finite and non-finite subordinate clauses is illustrated, which are realized using nominalized forms related to the possessive construction. Furthermore, the structure of the NP will be considered.
Elizaveta Kotorova & Andrey Nefedov: Besonderheiten des Kommunikationsverhaltens der indigenen sibirischen Völker (am Beispiel des Ketischen)
The peculiarities of communicative behavior within the national culture are determined, on the one hand, by certain linguistic means, and on the other hand, by the rules defining how to use these means. In this article, we identify the following main features of speech behavior patterns implemented by speakers of indigenous languages of Siberia, in particular by the Ket language speakers: 1) Etiquettical speech behavior patterns are implemented in most cases not verbally, but actionally; 2) There are practically no native politeness formulas, instead of them arbitrarily formulated statements or borrowed etiquette clichés are used; 3) Informative speech behavior patterns can be implemented both verbally and actionally; 4) Such communicative and pragmatic factors as age, social status and social distance do not seem to affect the implementation of directive speech behavior patterns.
Miika Lehtinen: Skolt Saami passive verbs
This paper deals with the Skolt Saami passive verb suffixes -j- and -õõvvâ- (e.g. mott-j-ed ‘change (intr.)’, rottš-õõvvâ-d ‘be pulled’) cognate with North Saami -o(j)- and -uvva- (e.g. dahkk-o-t ‘be done’, muhttaš-uvva-t ‘change (intr.)’) as well as Finnish -u- ~ -y- (e.g. käänt-y-ä ‘turn (intr)’). The research material has two complementary parts: a dialectal dictionary and a speech corpus. The semantics of the relevant verbs in the material is examined. The main distinction is made between intentional passives (true passives having a volitional agent) and automative passives (actions that happen spontaneously or by accident, anticausatives). The results show that at least the suffix -jed and to a lesser extent -õõvvâd are mainly used to mark automative passives, but some instances of intentional passives are also found as well as some cases that are ambiguous between the two. The suffix -õõvvâd is used in the passive function more rarely than the suffix -jed and it has more functions.
Sándor Maticsák: Die mordwinische Sammlung aus der Orenburg-Expedition von Pallas (1768–1774)
The 1769 transit of the Venus across the Sun was always an important astronomical event, because it made possible for astronomers to calculate the distance between the Sun and the Earth. 151 scientists and scholars travelled to 77 pre-selected spots around the world to observe the transit.
In 1768, the Imperial Academy of St. Petersburg organized five expeditions besides the Venus-observing teams to explore the flora, the fauna, the geological and the meteorological characteristics of far-off territories in Russia. The travellers obtained a large amount of information about the residents, customs, lifestyle and culture of these far-off lands, including some linguistic material as well. They wrote travelogues about their experiences.
The leader of the expedition was Peter Simon Pallas (1741–1811), the renowned Swedish natural scientist, and the subdivisions were led by German, Swedish and Russian scientists and scholars. Between 1768 and 1774, Pallas travelled around the Middle Volga Region, the Orenburg Region, Bashkortostan, Southwest Siberia and finally he reached as far as Buryatia. His travelogue was published in three volumes between 1771 and 1776 titled Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des Russischen Reichs.
Pallas’s book contains linguistic material from several languages, Mordvin, Khanty, Mansi, Samoyedic, Mari and Udmurt included. Most of the words are animal and plant names and vocabulary related to clothing and religious beliefs. The Mordvin material is made up of 83 words. The first volume of the travelogue contains 34 of these, which are mostly names for pieces of clothing and medicinal herbs. The third volume contains a multi-lingual glossary, 49 Mordvin words (mostly from the basic vocabulary) included.
The present paper analyses these Mordvin words. Earlier literature studied only a few of them. The majority of the words occur for the first time ever in Pallas’s work.
Natalia Pimenova: Prähistorische Kontakte der Eskimo-Aleutischen und austronesischen Sprachen: sprachliche Zeugnisse im „altaischen“ und „uralo-sibirischen“ Kontext
The Eskimo-Aleut languages are believed to represent a separate prehistoric migration of people from Asia. The more credible proposals on the external relations and prehistoric contacts of Eskimo-Aleut concern one or more of the language families of northern Eurasia. The two serious genetic hypotheses are ‘Altaic’ and ‘Uralo-Siberian’ or more inclusively ‘Nostratic’ (‘Eurasiatic’). With using a comparative analysis method, this paper provides data for connections between Eskimo-Aleut and Austronesian languages. The comparative word-list consists of comparisons of Proto-Eskimo (PE) or Proto-Eskimo-Aleut (PEA) and Proto-Austronesian (PAN) and Proto-Malayo-Polinesian (PMP) words put together by the author.
The material includes lexical entries that the author believes to be strong evidence for the Austronesian influence on Eskimo and Aleut languages. We can explain the lexical similarities as a result of a prehistoric substratum or convergence of proto-languages (contacts with peripheral prehistoric Austronesian subgroups).
Austronesian and alternate Uralo-Sibirian or Altaic etymologies of Eskimo words are discussed.
Sándor Szeverényi: Tense in Nganasan narratives
The main objective of the study is to categorize the use of verb tenses in Nganasan personal narratives. The study is corpus-based, with texts found in the annotated Nganasan Spoken Language Corpus (Brykina et al. 2018). The motivation of the study is to describe the various and complicated system of TAME categories in Nganasan. The analysis proves that a relation of the use of past tense and perfective aorist and their role in the storytelling may be motivated by ethnosyntactic factors. An ethnosyntactic base can be detected behind the use of the aorist – but full-fledged proof of this requires further investigation, into notions such as the “value” of time in the Nganasan culture. It seems that in the use of the aorist the prominence of the present moment and real-time of life is reflected. Labov’s oral narrative structure description is applied to the Nganasan narratives as well. The research focuses on the relation of the beginning and the main parts, i.e. the Abstract/Orientation and Complicating Action. In Nganasan stories, we find sequences: typical beginnings and segments. These are well reflected in the tense of the foreground. A relevant part of the foreground can be the utterances of the characters that belong to the mainline. The two main strategies are the use of past tense and perfective aorist. It means that there are two basic story-telling temporal frames: perfective aorist and general past tense. The first one is more typical in the folklore genres. These two strategies can be combined with narrative/reportative evidentiality. Several aspects play a role in the “choice” of tense, one of the most important being the role of the speaker and their relationship to the story. This is well reflected, for example, between the introductory parts (Abstract and Orientation) and the dominant tense of the main story-line (Complicating action).
Sándor Szeverényi & Beáta Wagner-Nagy: Verbs of speaking in Nganasan: A corpus-based approach
The study aims at categorizing verbs of speaking and thinking in Nganasan. All verbs that can be associated with thinking and speaking are examined in the texts found in the annotated Nganasan Spoken Language Corpus (Brykina et al. 2018). The approach as a whole is rather formal and quantitative, primarily focusing on which verbs are involved in constructing report speech. It can be shown that in the Nganasan texts, several verbs express utterances, but according to their number of occurrences, munu- ‘say’ is the most common and most frequently used verb of speaking. According to the distribution in the corpus data, it seems that the overall number of verb-of-speaking is not high.
Budzisch, Josefina & Ulrike Kahrs: Cardinal directions in Selkup
The paper deals with the denotations of the main cardinal points in Selkup, taking all three main dialect groups (Northern, Central and Southern) into account.
The naming of cardinal points is not well studied for Selkup, there is a lack of analysis of the underlying semantic structure of the denominations – this study aims at closing that research gap and giving some insights in environmental and cultural factors playing a role in expressing cardinal points.
The paper has the following structure: after a brief introduction, the current state of research is presented as well as the data used in the study, the main section deals with the analysis of the underlying structures in denoting south/north and east/west. The findings are summarized in the final section.
Szeverényi, Sándor & Katalin Sipőcz: Formen der direkten und indirekten Redewiedergabe im Nganasanischen und im Mansischen
In this paper we examine reported speech constructions in two Uralic languages spoken in Siberia, Nganasan and Mansi. We also examine whether areal – primarily Russian – influence can be found in these structures. Indirect speech report with person shift are rare in the languages studied, but sporadic data can be found in the corpus for this type, too. In Mansi and Nganasan the direct reported speech structure is much more common than indirect. It can be observed that in languages the direct speech structure consisting of two clauses requires a complementizer resulting subordinating clauses. Such complementizers do not exis in these languages, although there are examples in our corpus for the adaption of the Russian conjunction što ‘that’. In Mansi, in addition to the direct structure we can find indirect type without conjunction, and non-finit structure can be used, too. In Nganasan the reportative evidential serves as an alternative strategy.
Teptiuk, Denys: Quotative indexes in Erzya: a typological overview
In this paper, I provide a typological overview of quotative indexes, i.e. linguistic expression(s) encoding the presence of reported speech and thought, in contemporary Erzya. I focus on quotative strategies of different complexity attested in social media texts and classify the constructions according to their morphosyntactic structure and orientation. Furthermore, I take into account the possible connotations arising in the use of concrete strategies, such as the precision of reported discourse vis-à-vis original discourse, the reporter’s evaluative connotations concerning reported information and ambiguity in the presentation of speech and thought. The results of this study show that the markers used in Erzya quotative indexes correspond to their uses in other related languages and reflect cross-linguistic tendencies in the use of semantically reportative and non-reportative markers in quotative constructions.
Tóth, Enikő & Péter Csatár: A comparison of Hungarian focus structures: experimental insights
Our paper reports the results of an experiment we conducted to compare Hungarian preverbal focus (PVF) and syntactically unmarked focus (SUF) within the same experimental framework. The aim of the experiment was twofold: (i) to examine whether native speakers give higher ratings for PVF/SUF constructions in exhaustive settings than in non-exhaustive ones, (ii) to test whether the mode of presentation (written vs. auditory clues, no introductory question vs. the presence of an introductory wh-question) influences the ratings. We used a sentence-picture verification task in a relatively rich context. We found no empirical difference between PFV and SUF across the conditions, i.e. SUF might also receive an exhaustive interpretation (Surányi 2011). The results regarding the role of the wh-question are in line with Onea and Beaver’s work (2011) on PVF. Our findings support the assumption that for both structures exhaustiveness can be explained by the presence of a not necessarily explicit introductory wh-question, namely, a contextually derivable implicit question under discussion also facilitates the exhaustive interpretation.
Däbritz, Chris Lasse: First person imperative in Dolgan – Clusivity or number distinction?
The study at hand investigates the first person imperative forms of Dolgan (< North- Siberian Turkic < Turkic). Although Dolgan exhibits only two numbers (singular and plural), there are three forms in the first person imperative, whence the question arises in which functional domains these forms do occur. After some theoretical preliminaries are dealt with (section 2), three analyses of the forms are discussed (section 3.1): 1. number distinction (cf. Korkina 1970), 2. clusivity distinction inclusive vs. exclusive (cf. Ubrjatova 1985, Artem’ev 2013b) and 3. clusivity distinction minimal inclusive vs. augmented inclusive (cf. Dobrushina & Goussev 2005, Nevskaj a 2005). Finally, it is argued (section 3.2) that the forms can indeed be described most appropriately via a number distinction, whereby in many cases this correlates to a clusivity distinction minimal inclusive vs. augmented inclusive.
Jark, Florian: Zur Morphologie und Syntax desiderativer Verben im Nganasanischen
This paper deals with so-called desiderative constructions that are quite various in Nganasan. Desiderative constructions are constructions that express desire as English to want or German wollen and are considered as semantic prime with respect to the theory of Natural Semantic Metalanguage. This paper primarily analyses verbal means to express desideration in Nganasan with regard to their morphological and syntactical distribution.
Schweitzer, Benjamin: Musikinstrumentenbezeichnungen im Finnischen: ein Überblick
The study examines the denominations for music instruments in written Finnish from the mid-16th until the mid-20th century with emphasis on art music. The first part provides a historical and systematic analysis (etymology, semantics, lexicography, orthography and language planning) against the background of the history of both written Finnish and music culture in Finland. The focus is on the question when and how this specific terminology was imported into Finnish and how the conflict between autochthonous and foreign denominations unfolded and was resolved alongside the general development of written Finnish, especially considering that Finnish music life was dominated by native speakers of German and Swedish during the most important phase of this development. The second part summarizes a corpus-based variation analysis of the denominations for the core orchestral instruments and piano and their consolidation process. The variants of the Finnish terms for „trumpet“ and „cymbal“ are given in full table as examples; a general outline of the diachronic process and some remarks on the preconditions and obstructions for the prevailing of pseudo-autochthonous neologisms are added. One important result of the study is the finding that the examined lexemes – a small and structurally random sample – reflect many of the overall problems and processes that arose during the development of Finnish as a full-fledged civili sed language.
Siegl, Florian: Nachbetrachtungen zum Waldenzischen: Interrogativmodus im nordeurasiatischen Kontext
This study proposes that the Forest Enets interrogative mood should not be considered a continuation of the Proto-Samoyedic past tense marker *-så, but instead an inner-Samoyedic borrowing from Tundra Nenets. Although this argument has to remain speculative, the fact that the Forest Enets interrogative mood is markedly different from the system of its closest relative Tundra Enets (see Siegl 2014) casts serious doubt on the standard reconstruction as proposed by e. g., Mikola (2004).
Ylikoski, Jussi: The distributive “dwarf case” in Estonian
The article discusses the borderland between nominal case inflection and adverb derivation in Estonian. Estonian grammars customarily present a case system consisting of fourteen cases. The present article takes a step outside the traditional paradigm. The main focus of the study is on certain formations traditionally regarded as denominal adverbs. The previously underdescribed formations in -ti have a distributive meaning (e.g., hommikuti ‘in the mornings’, riigiti ‘across countries; by country’, keeliti ‘across languages’). Based on data drawn from billions of words of modern written Estonian on the Internet, the distributive in -ti turns out to be a rather productive morphological category. Special attention is given to the syntactic properties of these formations, as the data show that the distributive differs starkly from ordinary adverbs. It is argued that the distributives are not fully denominal forms, but rather show many features characteristic of nouns: they may be accompanied by postmodifying relative clauses as well as genitives, adjectival modifiers and pronominal determiners. The article shows that the inflection–derivation interface of the Estonian noun is far from clear-cut. On the basis of the findings presented in this study, it is proposed that our understanding of the Estonian case system can be advanced by introducing a concept of “dwarf case” in analogy with dwarf planets, which are members of the Solar System and share many features with planets despite not being proper planets in and of themselves. The Estonian distributive in -ti can therefore be characterized as a “dwarf case”, an entity that comes quite close to being potentially considered the fifteenth case o f the language.
Däbritz, Chris Lasse: Zur Syntax von Topiks in nordchantischen Dialekten
This study deals with the syntactic representation of topics in Northern Khanty dialects within a generative framework of minimalist character. After a discussion of the existing research on Khanty information structure (section 2) and a short description of the model of information structure applied here (section 3), the syntactic representation of topics in Northern Khanty dialects is analyzed on the basis of three corpora of Northern Khanty varieties (section 4). The major outcome of this study is that (Northern) Khanty is to be regarded as a topic-prominent language where the sentence-initial position (in generative terms: adjunction of the topic constituent to the subject agreement phrase AgrSP) plays a crucial role in marking topics; the passive, in turn, which itself is atypical for topic-prominent languages, is not to be regarded as a default mechanism of topicalization, as the subject in passive clauses is not always to be analyzed as the topic of the sentence.
de Smit, Merlijn: Fishing in troubled waters: on the origin of Finnic saima-stems
This paper deals with the etymology of four phonologically identical and semantically related terms in Finnish: Saimaa, the name of a lake; saima, saimasiika, a species of whitefish, saima, saimaverkko, a kind of net, and saima, a kind of boat. Below, I will advance a tentative Indo-Iranian etymology for the hydronym and possibly the fish as well, whereas I believe the word for ‘net’ to be ultimately based on an internal, Finnic instrumental derivation obscured by back-and-forth borrowing between Finnish and Saami. The word for ‘boat’ I will argue to be a borrowing from a Saami term for ‘quant-pole’ which itself is an Indo-Iranian borrowing. In the course of dealing with these terms, I will also suggest a new Baltic etymology for Finnish hämärä ‘dark’ as well as a Indo-European origin for a thinly spread Uralic term for ‘black’.
Duray, Zsuzsa: “If you don’t speak the language, you’re excluded. You’re a tough one, so to say.” – Conceptions of being a Sámi today as reflected in interviews on language and identity with Sámi people in Enontekiö, Finland
According to Seurujärvi-Kari (2011: 223), besides Sámi traditions related to lifestyle, the Sámi language can be regarded as “one of the most important ethnic symbols” of the Sámi people today. The question of how central the Sámi language actually is in defining a modern Sámi mostly residing in urbanized contexts with respect to other elements of Sáminess led me to study the Sámi-Finnish community of contemporary Enontekiö in Sápmi, the indigenous Sámi territory of Finnish Lapland. The discussion in this article is based on semi-structured interviews conducted in the municipality of Enontekiö during 2015–2016 with ten participants born between 1950s and 1980s who identify themselves and whom the local community also identify as Sámi people. In the analysis participants’ personal past and present experiences of Sámi language use are explored, and an emphasis is placed on revealing individual language attitudes towards the Sámi language with the aim of answering the following research questions: 1. How is the perceived importance of the Sámi language in personal identity constructions reflected (1) in the role Sámi has played in the lives of the participants and (2) in the attitudes of the participants and their parents to language use and language transfer? 2. To what extent is language perceived by the participants as a prominent aspect of Sáminess in general and of their own Sáminess with regard to non-linguistic expressions of Sáminess when they include traditional ways of life, traditional territory and contacts with the Sámi? Throughout the article generalizations are avoided and the focus is purposefully on individual experiences and perceptions in order to gain a better insight into what the maintenance of the heritage language means when constructing individual Sáminess in the local community of Enontekiö today.
Khanina, Olesya & Yuri Koryakov & Andrey Shluinsky: Enets in space and time: a case study in linguistic geography
Through a series of linguistic maps based on published ethnographic data and our fieldwork accounts, we reconstruct the territories in which Forest and Tundra Enets (Samoyedic) has been spoken from the 17th century till today. Text accompanying the maps comments on details of migrations of the two ethnic groups and on language contact with their neighbors, including descriptions of several assimilation processes that the Enets have been involved with. The gradual language endangerment process is analyzed in its geographic dimension.
Mus, Nikolett: The interrogative verb in Tundra Nenets
This article is about the morphological and syntactic behaviour of the Tundra Nenets (Northern Samoyedic, Uralic) utterance-type interrogative verb xăʔman- meaning ‘say what’. I will establish the distinction between (i) the predicate constructions containing either an interrogative non-verbal element or an interrogative verb; (ii) the interrogative clauses having either regular verbs or an interrogative verb as their predicates. I demonstrate that the restrictions in the grammatical behaviour of the interrogative verb can be explained by the process of wh-object incorporation. I finally argue that the existence of the interrogative verb in Tundra Nenets is an areal feature.
Nuorluoto, Jussi: Die Erschließung des frühen nordostslavischen Lautsystems und seiner Entwicklung anhand des altnordischen und finnisch-ugrischen Namenguts
The aim of this paper is to shed light on early Old Norse, Finno-Ugric and early Northeast Slavonic contacts, focusing on onomastic material. To my knowledge, these three language types have not been treated in one coherent study, and the contactlinguistic research is predominantly based on loanwords and certain structural features. This study should be viewed as a critical analysis of the prevailing opinions in regard to the relationship between the languages at hand, which ultimately leads to a re-evaluation of a number of etymologies. The material presented in this study is far from exhaustive, but the general conclusion is that many, in my opinion erroneous, interpretations still rely on outdated studies and thus, a revision on the basis of what is nowadays known about the development of disintegrating Common Slavonic towards the n orth is necessary.
Sipos, Mária: The nominalizer TAHI in four North Khanty dialects
This paper contributes to the description of one of the nominalizing techniques used in the Khanty language. The peculiarity of the nominalizer TAHI1 is that this element is strikingly similar to the one exhibited by the Mansi language in both formation and use, even though the two are etymologically independent. The existence and functions of this element has been explored, besides Mansi, in East Khanty as well as in the Sinya dialect (North Khanty). However, to reveal the areal or contact linguistic background of the correspondence mentioned above, it is necessary to explore this phenomenon in both Ob-Ugric languages, in which process the next step is reviewing the whole of the North Khanty dialect group. Accordingly, in this paper, the Šerkaly, the Sinya, the Sigva, and the Obdorsk dialects are surveyed, demonstrating that the nominalizer TAHI is documented in all of them, although the morphological behaviours seen in the individual dialects are diverse. The investigations are carried out on texts that were collected between the 1840s and the 2000s. The peculiarities of the various, old and new, folklore and non-folklore, spontaneous speech, edited and dictated etc., texts used in the investigation are taken into consideration.
Teptiuk, Denys: New Quotatives in Finnish and Estonian
In this paper I illustrate new ways of quote-introducing in Finnish and Estonian, with a focus upon non-reportative lexical material, used as quotative indexes in computer-mediated communications and new media texts. A general approach was adopted to investigate the possibilities of collocations of new quotatives with different types of predicates (speech and non-speech verbs), as well as in non-clausal uses. Thereby, the following questions were answered (i) what lexical material is employed in the new ways of quote-introduction in Finnish and Estonian (bearing in mind that new quotatives derive from a limited amount of semantic sources), (ii) what are the functional capacities of new quotatives in these languages, and (iii) whether there are analogies between use within one language and between the studied languages. The main findings showed that (a) new quotatives derive from a limited amount of semantic sources both in Finnish and Estonian, (b) there was partial similarity between the correspondent markers and the strategies they are employed in, (c) there were similar tendencies in the neutralization (bleaching) of event-orientation by the use of equational verbs as a framing verb in a quotative index clause and by non-clausal use, (d) the choice for new quotatives often differ, despite the presence of correspondent markers in the studied languages.
Bíró, Bernadett: From nouns into nominalizers and even further – Grammaticalization processes in Northern Mansi
This paper deals with the grammaticalization of the nouns mā ‘earth, world, land, place’ and wārmaľ ‘thing, work’ into nominalizers in Northern Mansi. Mansi (or Vogul) is a seriously endangered language which belongs to the Uralic (Finno-Ugric) language family. It is spoken in Western Siberia and its only living dialect is Northern Mansi. Nominalizers are auxiliary nouns used for creating (concrete and abstract) nouns. They have been grammaticalized from participial relative clauses. Mā ‘earth, world, land, place’ and wārmaľ ‘thing, work’ combined with participles can create action nominals
and other abstract nouns. Their syntactic behaviour shows that they have been grammaticalized as nominalizers in Northern Mansi. They represent the third stage of the grammaticalization process, namely decategorialization. The grammaticalization of words meaning ‘thing’ into a light noun or a nominalizer is a rather well-known process cross-linguistically. In case of mā, the source of the grammaticalization process was most probably the meaning ‘place’. In Ob-Ugric languages nominalizers often become derivational suffixes thus this can be the direction of the further grammaticalization. A very similar grammaticalization of the words meaning ‘thing’ and ‘place’ can be observed in the languages of the Siberian linguistic area (Eastern and Northern Khanty, Siberian Turkic languages) as well as in Mongolian Buryat belonging to the neighbouring Mongol area.
Bíró, Bernadett & Katalin Sipöcz: Ditransitivity in the Mansi language from typological perspective
This paper deals with Mansi ditransitive constructions from a typological point of view. Our main goal is to give an overview of these constructions and to place Mansi ditransitivity cross-linguistically. Mansi is one of the most endangered languages of the Finno-Ugric (Uralic) language family. It is spoken by less than a 1,000 people in Western-Siberia, its only living dialect is Northern Mansi. In this paper we discuss the main typological aspects of ditransitivity concerning syntactic, morphological as well as cognitive and cultural factors, and then we describe Mansi ditransitivity on the basis of these factors. Our analysis shows that most features of Mansi ditransitivity correspond with the cross-linguistic observations, e.g. the alternation of the indirect object construction and the secondary object construction, this alternation being controlled primarily by topicality and the passivization of the constructions. Beside this, Mansi ditransitivity has some language specific features as well.
Budzisch, Josefina: Locative, existential and possessive sentences in Selkup dialects
The paper deals with existential, locative and possessive sentences in Selkup; all three dialectal groups (Northern, Central, and Southern Selkup) are taken into account. Existential, locative and possessive sentences are closely related in Samoyedic languages; they all consist of the same three basic elements: theme, location, and copula. In Selkup, existential and locative sentences differ only in regard to their word order. In an existential sentence, the location precedes the theme, while in its locative opponents the location follows the theme. According to the definiteness effect, the theme of existential sentences cannot be interpreted as definite; that is also the case in Selkup. Due to these restrictions, so called strong modifiers like demonstratives and possessives can only occur in locative sentences, while weak quantifiers like numbers favour existential sentences. If the word order in locative sentences differs from the standard, in most cases there is a strong determiner present which seems to make the word order more variable. Possessive sentences in Selkup can be structurally the same as existential sentence, Northern Selkup differs in its composition from Central and Southern Selkup.
Däbritz, Chris Lasse: Zur Markierung von Numerus an Nomina in den samojedischen Sprachen – Synchronie und mögliche Implikationen für die Rekonstruktion des Protosamojedischen und des Protouralischen
This article “On the indication of nominal number in the Samoyedic languages – Synchrony and possible implications for the reconstruction of Proto-Samoyedic and Proto-Uralic” has got two major aims: on the one hand, it tries to systemize and analyze the complex nominal number marking in the present-day Samoyedic languages. On the other hand, some conclusions from this for the reconstruction of nominal number marking in Proto-Samoyedic and Proto-Uralic are drawn. The major outcome of this research is that especially the Northern Samoyedic languages Nganasan, Enets and Nenets are particularly conservative in terms of nominal number marking and are hence to be regarded as key languages for the reconstruction of both Proto-Samoyedic and Proto-Uralic in this respect.
de Smit, Merlijn: Insular Etymologies: Indo-European and substrate coastal terminology on Finnic and Saami
Basing itself on recent research on Finnic-Saami substrate vocabulary, particularly Ante Aikio’s research on a fairly recent non-Uralic substratum in Saami lexicon and phonology, this paper deals with the etymology of several Finnic and Saami lexical items broadly within the semantic field of coastal geography, a number of which have been suspected to be of substrate origins. I will argue that for some of the items treated here (Finnic *saare- ‘island’, Finnic *neeme- ‘peninsula’) Indo-European borrowing etymologies of various strength can be presented; in one particular case (Finno-Saami *śolma ‘strait’) an internal Uralic derivation seems likely; but for others (e.g. Saami *vielttē ‘hillside, mountain side’), Indo-European lexical equivalents can be found with limited spread and/or irregular sound correspondences, suggesting common substratum items. These latter items are of particular interest, as they suggest the presence of the same extinct language, or closely related group of languages, in a large area in Western Europe in comparatively recent times. This notion is not unproblematic, as I will explain at the end of this paper. As a kind of etymological bycatch, two etymologies will be represented for lexemes that do not represent coastal geography: Finnic *kulma ‘corner’ (late PIE/Pre-Germanic) and Finnish narka, narkka ‘lack; narrow, scanty’ (Germanic).
Gusev, Valentin: On the etymology of auditive in Samoyedic
This paper proposes an etymology of the auditive forms in Samoyedic languages. It is argued that the auditive goes back to the imperfective verbal noun, namely to that with the suffix *-mon, which has been conserved in Nganasan and left traces in Nenets. Its use as an auditive originates from constructions like ‘his coming is heard’. Since it was more or less the only contexts where it was used as a subject, the verb could be dropped, and the nominative (in most cases plural) form of the verbal noun has been grammaticalised in the auditive meaning. Harder, Anja: Grammaticalization of spatial expressions in Central and Southern Selkup
Harder, Anja: Grammaticalization of spatial expressions in Central and Southern Selkup
The Central and Southern Selkup dialect groups use different strategies to express spatial relations. Besides case morphology and local adverbs also relator nouns and postpositions occur. Relator nouns occur much more frequently than postpositions. In the vast majority of the corpus data relator nouns only appear in constructions expressing spatial relations. The original lexical meaning moves into the backround.The question arises whether these relator nouns in Selkup still have a full nominal status or should be better analysed as postpositions.
Kahrs, Ulrike: Historische Ereignisse als Konstituente der kollektiven Identität: der Multan-Fall und seine Bedeutung für die udmurtische Identität
Dieser Artikel betrachtet ein Gerichtsverfahren, welches Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts im Siedlungsgebiet der Udmurten stattfand und an dem mehrere udmurtische Männer als Angeklagte beteiligt waren. Nach einer kurzen Schilderung der historischen Ereignisse richtet sich das Augenmerk darauf, welche Prozesse sich abgespielt haben, um diese Begebenheit im Verlauf von knapp 100 Jahren zu einer Komponente der kollektiven Identität der Udmurten werden zu lassen.
Rozhanskiy, Fedor & Elena Markus: Negation in Soikkola Ingrian
This paper gives a detailed overview of negation in the Soikkola dialect of Ingrian, which is at present almost extinct. All the data come from field recordings (a corpus of spontaneous speech and elicitations) from the last decade. In Ingrian, the person and number of the negative construction is expressed by the negative auxiliary verb, while the lexical verb expresses tense and mood characteristics. Ingrian prohibitive shows asymmetry in the formation of singular and plural forms: the plural forms take the infinitive of the lexical verb. The article analyses different aspects of negation, including a specific system of negative pronouns, and the use of the abessive suffix only in verbal forms.
Wegener, Hannah: On annotating information status in Kamas
In this paper it is discussed how anaphoric relationships in Kamas can be annotated in a corpus. Kamas makes use of different kinds of anaphora, including zero-anaphora for direct objects as well as subjects. In a corpus these need to be tagged in order to be studied. The article introduces an annotation scheme for information status, based on the RefLex (cf. Riester/Baumann 2014) scheme that can be employed in EXMARaLDA. Furthermore the article argues that allotting two separate tags, one for each anaphora is a user friendly and linguistically adequate method to address the situation of two kinds
of zero-anaphora occurring simultaneously.
Hamari, Arja: The genitive in the secondary declension in the Mordvin languages
In the grammars of the Mordvin languages (Erzya and Moksha), the term secondary declension refers to constructions that have two case markers attached to an adnominal modifier that is used as an independent NP in a clause. These case markers of the constructions usually come from two different inflectional paradigms: the indefinite declension and the definite declension, respectively. This paper considers the forms that have the genitive as the first component of the construction. Unlike other case markers in this position, an additional ligative element appears between the genitive and the subsequent case ending. This study analyses the syntactic functions of these extended genitive forms in light of the typological observations on case compounding. The development of the Mordvin ligatives is also discussed.
Helimski, Eugen: Praeliminaria. Paralipomena
Kovylin, Sergei: Negative Pronouns and Adverbs in the Central and Southern Dialects of Selkup
The paper discusses the problem of identifying and describing the main strategies of pronouns and adverbs negation in the central and southern dialects of the Selkup language. These pronouns and adverbs have already been studied by numerous linguists; nevertheless, there is no satisfactory explanation of their nature and strategies of their negation. For the purposes of analysis, the data of the field archives of the Department of Siberian Indigenous Languages (Tomsk State Pedagogical University) and the field archives of the department of Finno-Ugric Studies (University of Hamburg) were used. The research showed that there are numerous strategies of pronoun and adverb negation differentiating two main types of negative pronouns and adverbs and taking only the function of negation: independent ones – appearing in elliptical contexts independently; and dependent ones – appearing in elliptical contexts with the additional particle of standard negation. Moreover, the paper identifies possible processes of language change in the domain of pronouns and adverbs.
Lauerma, Petri: Votian Suffixal Disharmony, its Causes and Variation
Votian (Votic, Vote) is a language belonging to the Baltic-Finnic branch of Finno-Ugric languages. It has been spoken in Western Ingria, Russia, in the areas where also two other Baltic-Finnic languages – Izhorian and (Ingrian Finnish dialects of) Finnish – have been used. The main dialects of Votian are Western Votian (which is still spoken in its westernmost villages in the Vaipooli region near the Gulf of Finland) and (now extinct) Eastern Votian. These dialects are relatively close to each other. On the other hand, the dialect spoken in the westernmost village of Kukkosi (Kukkuzi) had according to Ariste (1968:v) become Ingrianized to such a degree that it no longer directly reflects the character of Votian language and has been left aside in his grammatical description. The present paper aims also to describe the system of only proper Votian dialects, excluding both the language of folk poems and the last Votian idiolects spoken in Vaipooli, because the influence of Ingrian and Finnish is overwhelming in these varieties. Some comparisons have, however, been made to these and to the now extinct dialect of Kukkosi (on this dialect e.g. Posti 1980: xv–xxi and Suhonen 1985; on the long since extinct dialect of Kreevins, which was near the Kukkosi dialect, cf. Winkler 1997; on the present situation of all Votian dialects e.g. Markus – Rozhanskiy 2012: 78).
Scharre, Alexandra: Eine Analyse der Bilder in chantischen Fibeln vor dem Hintergrund der sowjetischen Nationalitätenpolitik
Der Fibel als erstes Schulbuch eines jeden Kindes kommt eine hohe Bedeutung zu, da sie neben der didaktischen Funktion auch eine Sozialisationsfunktion inne hat. Wie in Untersuchungen über Fibeln aus dem Nationalsozialismus und der DDR bereits nachgewiesen werden konnte, kann diese Sozialisationsfunktion auch dahingehend genutzt werden, um Kinder bereits im frühen Schulalter politisch zu beeinflussen oder zu manipulieren (Pöggeler 1985: 21; Teistler 2004: 187 ff.). Im Hinblick auf diese Möglichkeiten wurden die Fibeln der Chanten, einem in der ehemaligen Sowjetunion lebenden uralischen Volk, vor dem Hintergrund der sowjetischen Nationalitätenpolitik untersucht. Die zentrale Fragestellung ist, ob sich die sowjetische Nationalitätenpolitik in den bildlichen Darstellungen der chantischen Fibeln nachweisen lässt. Dazu wurden exemplarisch Bilder aus acht chantischen Schulbüchern aus den Jahren zwischen 1930 und 1997 untersucht und miteinander verglichen.
Ylikoski, Jussi: Degrammaticalization in North Saami: development of adpositions, adverbs and a free lexical noun from inflectional and derivational suffixes
This article discusses degrammaticalization in North Saami. Globally, one of the best known examples of degrammaticalization is the development of the North Saami adposition and adverb haga ‘without’ from an earlier abessive case suffix. This article builds on earlier studies by examining haga in greater detail and by relating the development of haga to its cognates dagi and dagá in Lule Saami. The history of the Saami abessive sheds light to the understanding of the North Saami morpheme -naga, a derivational suffix most likely originating from the Proto-Saami essive *-na, which in turn goes back to the Proto-Uralic locative case suffix. It is shown that denominal “contaminative” adjectives such as varranaga ‘stained with blood’ and gáfenaga ‘stained with coffee’ have given rise both to the postposition naga ‘stained with’ and, most importantly, to the noun (-)naga ‘stain’ which mainly occurs in compound nouns such as varranaga(t) ‘blood stain(s)’ and gáfenaga(t) ‘coffee stain(s)’ in the Guovdageaidnu dialect of North Saami. Emergence of a concrete content word such as this appears to be the very first attested example of a degrammaticalization chain going all the way from an affix to a lexical noun.
Diskussion und Kritik:
Bartens, Hans-Hermann: Gábor Tillinger: Samiska ord för ord. Att mäta lexikalt avstånd mellan språk [Saamisch Wort für Wort. Den lexikalischen Abstand zwischen Sprachen messen]
Blokland, Rogier: Sergej Maksimov & Sirkka Saarinen, Vadim Danilov, Ekaterina Seliverstova. Suomalais-udmurttilainen sanakirja. Apuneuvoja suomalaisugrilaisten kielten opintoja varten XVI. [Hilfsmittel für das Studium der finnisch-ugrischen Sprachen XVI.]
Hasselblatt, Cornelius: Aet Lees: Case Alternations in Five Finnic languages. Estonian, Finnish, Karelian, Livonian and Veps
Hasselblatt, Cornelius: Aino Jõgi: Inglise päritolu sõnad eesti keeles
Pantermöller, Marko: Nobufumi Inaba: Suomen datiivigenetiivin juuret vertailevan menetelmän valossa. [Die Wurzeln des finnischen dativischen Genitivs im Lichte der vergleichenden Methode]
Berichte, Mitteilungen, Nachrichten:
Eckmann, Stefanie: Tradition und Innovation: Seit 50 Jahren Finnougristik in München
Hasselblatt, Cornelius: Konvulsion statt Innovation: Die 48 Jahre der niederländischen Finnougristik
Matteikat, Sophia: Start in das vierte Jahrzehnt von Studentenkonferenzen – die IFUSCO 2015 in Pécs
Shcherbatykh, Maria: Summary of the XV Finno-ugric student conference (as a part of XIX Open student conference of Faculty of Philology)
Däbritz, Chris Lasse: Die Entwicklung des urslavischen und spätgemeinslavischen Vokalsystems: Eine phonetische Analyse anhand slavischer Lehnwörter in ostseefinnischen Sprachen
This article „The Development of the Proto-Slavic and Late Common Slavic Vowel System: A Phonetical Analysis on the Basis of Slavic Loanwords in Balto-Finnic Languages“ deals explicitely with the phonetical, i.e. not the phonological, development of the Slavic vowel system. Firstly the relevant literature regarding both the phonological development of the Slavic vowel system and the phonetic peculiarities of the Slavic loanwords in Balto-Finnic languages is discussed. After 86 Slavic loanwords in Balto-Finnic languages have been examined quantitatively and qualitatively in terms of their expressiveness for the phonetics of the Slavic vowel system, the results of this empirical analysis are discussed . In a final step the results of this analysis are referred to further (open) questions concerning Slavic-Balto-Finnic language contacts and their periodisation.
Horváth, Csilla: Old problems and new solutions: Teaching methods in the governmental and alternative Mansi educational institutions
Mansi is a Uralic language spoken in Western Siberia. It is a severely endangered minority language, used in a Russian-dominated, multiethnic and multilingual environment, and its state is heavily affected by the loss of traditional ways of life and rapid urbanisation as well. Most of the Mansi people live in towns and cities, and Mansi children grow up in multiethnic families with Russian as the common language. Since the family cannot serve as the most stable base of language acquisition and language use, education plays very important role in fostering the spread of bilingualism (as opposed to monolingualism in Russian) and reversing language shift. On the territory of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug both governmental and alternative educational institutions attempt to cope with the lack of well-trained teachers and suitable textbooks in Mansi. In this paper a comparison of teaching methods used in governmental and alternative educational institutions is presented with a focus on the experimental methods developed and used in alternative institutions to stop the language shift and maintain the heritage culture among urban children.
Mus, Nikolett: Predicate interrogative phrases in Tundra Nenets
This paper discusses the structure of content questions whose predicate is an interrogative noun phrase. Grammatical features of this type of nonverbal clauses will be described here, such as (i) agreement between subject and nonverbal interrogative predicate, (ii) use of the copular verb, (iii) tense and mood affixes, and (iv) the order of clausal constituents, i.e. subject and predicate. The main aim is to examine whether there is any difference between predicative interrogative noun phrases and non-interrogative ones.
Siegl, Florian: The non-possessive use of px.2p in Nganasan and Dolgan – a reappraisal
The dual function of the 2nd person possessive suffix (henceforth px.2p and px.2sg) as a marker of both possession and occasionally also referentiality is known in several Uralic languages. In the Finno-Ugric branch, this is known for Komi (e.g., Leinonen 2006) and Udmurt (e.g., Winkler 2011: 66) as well as for Northern Khanty (Nikolaeva 1999: 84). In Samoyedic, all Northern Samoyedic languages seem to show this feature, though the degree and adequacy of the descriptions vary (e.g., Körtvély 2010; Siegl 2013: 371ff; Katzschmann 2008: 379). A similar non-possessive use has been observed in Dolgan, a Turkic language spoken on the Taimyr Peninusla (Stachowski 1998). Stachowski indentified this feature as Nganasan influence and re-approached the same topic in a small follow-up study (Stachowski 2010). Although Northern Samoyedic and most probably Nganasan influence is very likely, as similar use of the px.2p is said to be unknown in other Turkic languages, the original work by Stachowski raises a number of questions which, so far, have not been investigated. In this paper, three follow-up questions have been singled for examination. First, given that the Dolgan use of the px.2p is an instance of Nganasan substrate in Dolgan, does syntax and semantics/pragmatics follow the same principles, or can individual uses absent from the other language be identified? The second question investigates a claim deriving from Stachowski’s initial paper (Stachowski 1998), where he assumed that the referential use of the px.2p in Dolgan would be prominent in Lower Dolgan and infrequent in Upper Taimyrian Dolgan, due to an absence of contact with Nganasan. The third question to be addressed here is historical and attempts a reconstruction of the potential contact scenario and how this feature was introduced into the grammar of Dolgan. Finally, some theoretical thoughts and challenges are offered.
Ylikoski, Jussi: From compound nouns to case marking: Prolatives in South Saami and Lule Saami
This article discusses the morphology, syntax and semantics of the previously underdescribed denominal formations in raejkiem and raejkien in present day written South Saami, and their etymological and functional counterpart rájge in Lule Saami. As the topic has been mostly described in occasional dictionary entries but largely ignored in grammatical descriptions, the present article provides a corpus based grammatical description of the formations such as South Saami loedteraejkiem ‘along the track’ and okseraejkien ‘through the door’, and the corresponding luoddarájge and uksarájge in Lule Saami. The detailed morphosyntatic and semantic analysis suggests that raejkiem/ raejkien and rájge – originating in the genitive and accusative forms of the nouns for ‘hole, opening’ – have many case like features that make them look like modern equivalents of the so called prolative (‘along, through, via’) case reconstructed in the (Pre )Proto Saami predecessors of these westernmost Uralic languages. In a wider perspective, the development of the case like raejkiem/ raejkien and rájge prolatives from compound nouns challenges received views about diachronic interrelations of compounding, derivation and inflection.
Diskussion und Kritik:
Bradley, Jeremy: Gábor Bereczki in Zusammenarbeit mit Klára Agyagási: Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Tscheremissischen (Mari). Der einheimische Wortschatz
Hasselblatt, Cornelius: Raimo Raag: Estniska från grunden
Berichte, Mitteilungen, Nachrichten:
Knüppel, Michael: Nachträge zum Schriftenverzeichnis István Futaky 2002–2011